Eastern African countries are endowed with native eucheumatoids growing naturally in their waters. However, like many other countries worldwide, farming of eucheumatoids relies on imported strains of Eucheuma and Kappaphycus from the Philippines. Commercial farming in East African countries started in Tanzania in 1989 and spread to Madagascar, Kenya and Mozambique. The main farming method is off-bottom practiced in shallow waters. In Tanzania (the largest producer), the industry employs about 30,000 farmers with a production of 107,000t (FW) annually. Madagascar, the second largest producer, exports 20,000t. Kenya produces 1000t, produced by 416 farmers while Mozambique produced 5,230t in 2003 involving 2,000 farmers. The main challenges are ice-ice disease and epiphytes (mainly Melanothamnus spp) owing to climate change. This has led to decrease of Kappaphycus production in Tanzania, collapse of the industry in 2000s in Madagascar, and massive die-offs in all countries. Additionally, most production is now E. denticulatum. Opportunities for large scale production include existing seaweed value addition, existence of Zanzibar Seaweed Cluster Initiative, research on deeper-water farming technologies, contractual farming initiatives, training on Best Business Management Practices, and seaweed industry recognized as priority in Blue Economy.